Adaptations – Procedures for customizing the instruction, assessment and grading system to meet individual students’ needs, which may include accommodations, interventions and modifications.
Accommodations – Adaptations that provide access for any student to the general curriculum but do not fundamentally alter the grade‐level standard or proficiency level.
Alignment – The directness of the link among standards, district curriculum, instructional practices, and assessments.
Averaging Scores – A method to compute a final grade. Grades may be inaccurate when they result only from the calculation of the mean in contexts where extreme scores distort results. They can be repaired by considering other measures of central tendency (mode, median), weighted averages, and using professional judgment.
Cut Scores – Cut scores are selected points on the score scale of a test. The points are used to determine the level of performance.
Effect Size - Effect Size is simply a way of quantifying the effectiveness of a particular intervention. Hattie’s research places particular emphasis on programs with effect sizes above 0.4 as worth having and those lower than 0.4 as needing further consideration.
Formative Assessment – Purposeful, ongoing collection of information about how students are learning while there is still time to improve. Both teacher and student then use the information to guide continuous improvement toward the intended learning.
Grade ‐ A letter, number, or other symbol assigned to summarize the quality of student performance.
Interventions ‐ Interventions are intentional actions that a school team/teacher implements when a student is not reaching grade level standards. The purpose is to accelerate academics performance so that each student meets or exceeds standard.
Mark – The “score” (number or letter) given on any single assessment or performance task.
Modifications – Adaptations to the curriculum that fundamentally alter the grade‐level expectation, but do not fundamentally alter the content standard. Modifications are provided only to students who qualify for special education services or highly capable students. Modifications typically include reducing the cognitive load, methodology or delivery of instructions, and/or the performance criteria.
Modified Grade – A progress indicator that reflects student achievement based on a modified standard.
Modified Standard – An expectation for student performance that is challenging for eligible students, but is less difficult than the grade-level academic achievement standard. Modified academic achievement standards must be aligned with academic content standards for the grade in which a student is enrolled.
Multiple Assessment Opportunities – Evaluations that provide more than one way for students to demonstrate attainment of a standard. Students need to be provided with multiple opportunities to perform in relation to standards. Multiple opportunities to perform can apply to the assessment approach (open ended questions vs. close‐ended questions), format (constructed response, multiple choice), or context (on‐demand vs. over time, the setting, the purpose of the assessment).
On‐demand assessment – Assessment that takes place at a predetermined time and place. On‐ demand refers to a task that is done at a point in time and over a limited amount of time. The task must be doable in the time provided. The MSP, district common unit assessments, SATs, and final exams are examples of on‐demand assessment.
Open‐ended task – A task with no single correct response. Open‐ended tasks are used to determine how students use what they know, how they demonstrate a skill or process, how they communicate what they understand, or how they apply what they know in a new context.
Proficiency – Having or demonstrating an expected degree of knowledge or skill in a particular area.
Standard – The broadest, most general form of learning expectation from which more specific grade level curriculum is developed. Content standards describe what students should know and be able to do.
Standards‐Based – A descriptor that suggests how a clear and direct relationship exists among any combination of activities, materials, instructional processes, and assessments and that all relate to each other and to identified standards.
Standards‐Based Assessments – Assessment in which the criteria for evaluating student achievement are taken directly from the standards.
Standards‐Based System – A system in which the classroom curriculum is designed to help students attain defined standards. There is congruence among a focus on standards, the learning‐teaching activities and materials selected to engage students, the assessments used to document student attainment of the standards and the grading and reporting of student attainment of these standards.
Summative Assessment – A culminating assessment at the end of an instructional period that measures the extent a student has learned a specific set of content or skills.
Zeroes – A score that implies the total absence of learning. Missed tests, scores attained by cheating, or assignments not handed in do not offer data about level of learning.